Hormones are chemical messengers. They are produced in the glands of our body, are released from those glands and circulate to different organs. They influence all sorts of different functions, such as bone growth, metabolism, and ovulation, which depend on the hormone released and the cells it acts on. For example, hormones released by the hypothalamus and pituitary glands in your brain stimulate the ovaries to grow and release an egg, leading to ovulation. Ovulation, then, causes us to produce the hormone progesterone.
We have dozens of hormones and millions of hormone receptors, which are like docking ports on the outside of cells that allow hormones to come in and do their jobs. Estrogen is an amazing example of a hormone that does so long. We have estrogen receptors in our heart, bones, and brain, not just in our uterus. This is why estrogen can affect much of our body at once, including our menstrual cycles, as well as cognitive function and bone density and many other functions. The same goes for cortisol, our thyroid hormones, and many others.
These hormonal systems are also interconnected. Your thyroid function affects your estrogen production, your estrogen levels affect your thyroid, your cortisol levels affect thyroid function, and your cortisol levels influence ovarian function. All of these systems communicate all the time. It is like a telephone game. When the messages are communicated correctly, the functions that are supposed to be activated by hormones can do their jobs without problems. But as in a telephone game, messages may not be transmitted correctly. The messages may not even transmit at all, or there may be some messages that are transmitted too loudly or that too many messages are happening at once. If the messages are not getting through correctly, what is supposed to happen at the other end is like static on the channel. The messages can be confused. And this is how hormonal problems happen.