Among the many tools used by health professionals in the evaluation of depression in older adults it is Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The GDS is used to measure mental illness in older adults.
Unlike other depression assessment tools, the GDS does not serve as a diagnostic tool. Instead, helps nurses quantify their concerns about mental illness.
1) Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15)
The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a 15-question assessment of depression in geriatric patients. It was developed by Jerome Yesavage of the Stanford University Clinical Research Center on Aging.
This assessment is available in multiple languages and can be self-administered. It takes between five and seven minutes to complete. Its sensitivity and specificity indicate its criterion validity.
Several studies have examined the validity and reliability of the GDS-15 in clinical settings. One study found it to be accurate and reliable when given to people living in a residential care facility.
Its kappa score was 53.8% and its Youden index was 0.3819, which makes it a suitable tool for geriatric patients. The GDS-15 was not limited to elderly patients; it can be used to assess people with a variety of mental health problems.
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The GDS-15 is a brief depression screening tool that can be administered to patients in a variety of settings. In its most basic form, it is used in clinical settings to assess the severity of discouragement.
Although its validity is generally high, more studies are needed to further establish its reliability and validity in clinical settings.
The GDS-15 has been validated with factor analysis in both men and women. The three-factor structure of the GDS-15 was found to fit the data for both men and women well.
In addition, he had multiple confirmatory factors. Measurement invariance was also observed when factor patterns were equivalent across genders.
The Scale is a useful screening tool for the diagnosis of depression in elderly patients. Its simplicity and ease of use make it an ideal tool for clinical settings.
Additionally, its simple Yes/No format makes it easier to understand than other discouragement rating scales. It also rates patients’ social interactions and enjoyment.
2) Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30)
The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a tool for detecting discouragement in older adults. It has been validated among older adults with different levels of cognitive functioning.
It is also sensitive to somatic presentations of dejection, which are common in older adults. However, its yes/no format limits its acceptance among older adults.
The GDS-30 is a 30-item self-report questionnaire. Items are scored on a scale from 0 to 30, and answers can be yes or no. The total score is then calculated by adding the complete yes and no answers.
A score of 0 to 10 is considered free of depression, while a score of 11 to 20 indicates mild to moderate sadness.
A study of the GDS-30 showed moderate to strong correlations with the MNA-SF and SMMT scores. In addition, the age of the participants was related to their GDS scores. Participants who were malnourished were more likely to be depressed than those with normal nutritional status.
Additionally, participants who were depressed were more likely to have dementia.
Although the GDS-30 geriatric depression scale is not a diagnostic tool, its positive results may indicate mental health problems in the elderly. This should prompt a mental health professional to do a full evaluation.
In addition, a full assessment regarding sociability should be performed, as mental illness is a major risk factor for sociability among older adults. However, the GDS-30 is considered a screening instrument and is not intended to replace a psychological evaluation or a comprehensive diagnostic interview.
GDS-30 has excellent reliability and validity among the Chinese elderly. Its two-factor structure makes it easier to interpret than the four-factor scales found in other mental illness screening tools.
This screening tool is easy to administer and interpret and has wide clinical acceptance. It has also been validated for its validity and sensitivity.
The GDS-30 Geriatric Depression Scale contains 30 items that measure mental illness. Most of the items have a dichotomous response.
It means that one indicates depressive symptoms while the other indicates that a person does not have any depressive symptoms. The higher the score, the more depressive symptoms a person may have.
The GDS-30 has been validated in three languages. The original version of the questionnaire was developed by Drs. Jorge Martínez de la Iglesias and Carmen Ones Filches. A second version was created by Dr. Johnny Pella. Furthermore, the GDS-30 has also been translated into Malayalam.
The GDS-30 is a widely used screening tool for mental illness. It has been used in clinical settings for over 30 years. Its validity and reliability have been demonstrated by a recent study.
Its translation and validation into Malayalam is one of the many languages of India and can help fill the gaps in geriatric research.
Video: What is Depression in Old Age or Geriatric Depression?
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