Connect with us

Politics

Intellectually stimulating. “Leaves no stone unturned.”

Published

on

Intellectually stimulating.  “Leaves no stone unturned.”

Author’s Note: This is the fifth and final segment of my review of Robert Spencer’s new revised and expanded edition of Did Muhammad exist?. Part 1 is here. Part 2 is here. Part 3 is here. The fourth part is here.

Here’s more from Chapter Thirteen, “Making Sense of It All,” which offers a wonderful summary of all the arguments and their conclusions found in this book:

  • Around the same time as the reign of Abd al-Malik, Arabic became the predominant written language of the Arab empire, replacing Syriac and Greek.
  • Abd al-Malik claimed, in a passing comment on a hadith, to have compiled the Qur’an, contradicting the Islamic tradition that the collection was the work of the Caliph Uthman forty years earlier.
  • Various hadiths report that Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, governor of Iraq during the reign of Abd al-Malik, edited the Qur’an and distributed its new edition to the various Arab-controlled provinces, again, something that Uthman was supposed to have done decades earlier.
  • Even some Islamic traditions hold that certain common Islamic practices, such as the recitation of the Qur’an during mosque prayers, date from the orders of Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, not from the earliest period of Islamic history.
  • While the canonical Islamic account holds that Muhammad was born in Mecca, which was a thriving center of commerce and pilgrimage, existing records show that during the time Muhammad is supposed to have lived, he was not a city of importance.
  • Although it is assumed that the directive to Muslims to pray towards Mecca was revealed during the time of Muhammad, the first mosques were built in front of Petra in Jordan, until the early years of the 8th century. Some of these ancient mosques face Petra to this day.
  • In the middle of the 8th century, the Abbasid dynasty supplanted the Umayyad line of Abd al-Malik. The Abbasids accused the Umayyads of impiety on a large scale. In the Abbasid period, biographical material on Muhammad began to proliferate. The first complete biography of the prophet of Islam finally appeared during this time, almost 150 years after the traditional date of his death.
  • The proliferation of hadith literature, including biographical material on Muhammad, reached its zenith in the 9th century, more than two hundred years after Muhammad is traditionally said to have died.
  • The biographical material that emerged places Muhammad in an area of ​​Arabia that was never the center of commerce and pilgrimage that the canonical account of the origins of Islam depends on it to be.

Muhammad, the Qur’an, and Islam were necessary creations required by political theology.

Muhammad, if he did not exist, or if his actual facts were not known, would certainly have been politically useful to the new Arab empire as a legendary hero. The empire was growing rapidly, soon rivaling the Byzantine and Persian empires in size and power. He needed a common religion, a political theology that would provide the basis for the unity of the empire and secure loyalty to the state.

This new prophet had to be an Arab and live in the depths of Arabia. Had it come from anywhere else within the territory of the new empire, that place could have claimed special status and lobbied for political power on that basis. Muhammad, significantly, is said to have come from the central region of the empire, not from the borderlands.

He had to be a warrior prophet, because the new empire was aggressively expansionary. Giving those conquests a theological justification, as the teachings and example of Muhammad do, would place them beyond criticism.

This prophet would also need a scripture to give him authority. Much of the Qur’an shows signs of having been borrowed from the Jewish and Christian traditions, suggesting that the founders of Islam made their scriptures from existing material. The new script had to be in Arabic to serve as the basis for an Arab empire. But he did not have an extensive Arabic literary tradition to draw on, especially since Abd al-Malik and his fellow Umayyad caliphs were based not in Arabia but in Damascus. It is perhaps not a coincidence that this Arabic script contains numerous non-Arabic elements and blatant inconsistencies. Their conquest had brought them to Damascus, but as Arabs they wanted to establish their empire with Arab elements at the center: an Arab prophet and an Arab revelation.

The above account is an inadequate summary of the intellectually stimulating impact of Spencer’s book, which leaves no stone unturned. He is not afraid to confront alleged counterexamples that supposedly refute his main arguments. The disciplines of archeology, numismatics, philology, history, and textual criticism are carefully applied to the question of the historicity of the man we know as Muhammad, and they all fail to convince us of the existence of the Prophet and of the veracity of the Bible. traditional Islamic account of the rise of Islam, and the compilation of the Qur’an. Read Soencer’s book and get instructions.

Advertisement
Advertisement

Lifestyle

LifeStyle1 week ago

How to Prioritize Self Care as a New Parent

A bundle of joy has joined you in your life and you couldn’t be happier. But, at the same time,...

LifeStyle1 week ago

5 Reasons Why You Can’t Stay Asleep

You have likely heard it most of your life: getting a good night’s sleep is important for your overall health....

LifeStyle2 weeks ago

4 Ways to Spread Joy This Fall

Traditionally, many people strive to spread as much joy as they can in the weeks leading up to Christmas. But...

LifeStyle4 weeks ago

Tips to Boost Your Energy and Ensure Life Longevity with NMN Supplements

Australia’s median age limit increased by two years recently. Higher NAD+ can improve your metabolism rates and prolong natural aging....

LifeStyle2 months ago

5 Tips on Writing APA Research Paper

When students reach college education, they understand that it won’t all be flowers and sunshine. There are different courses with...

Support group for businesses to overcome challenges Support group for businesses to overcome challenges
LifeStyle3 months ago

Support group for businesses to overcome challenges

All-day brunch and soup kitchen Cafe Coco suffered as walk-ins dwindled significantly. It’s a tourist-dependent cafe that’s nestled in the...

S’pore startup Shiok Meats acquires clean red meat company Gaia Foods S’pore startup Shiok Meats acquires clean red meat company Gaia Foods
LifeStyle3 months ago

S’pore startup Shiok Meats acquires clean red meat company Gaia Foods

According to Technology in Asia, Shiok Meats has acquired a stake of more than 90% in Gaia Foods for an...

Marianna Hewitt’s home proves that neutral decor can be full of personality Marianna Hewitt’s home proves that neutral decor can be full of personality
LifeStyle3 months ago

Marianna Hewitt’s home proves that neutral decor can be full of personality

If anyone understands the importance of maintaining your brand, it is Marianna Hewitt. The trusted influencer and founder of the...

The 16 best stuffed pepper recipes for every occasion The 16 best stuffed pepper recipes for every occasion
LifeStyle3 months ago

The 16 best stuffed pepper recipes for every occasion

Something you may not know about me is that I absolutely adore a pepper. Raw, cooked, marinated, bathed: each and...

Top 10 Bedroom Plants That Work As Air Purifying Plants Top 10 Bedroom Plants That Work As Air Purifying Plants
LifeStyle3 months ago

Top 10 Bedroom Plants That Work As Air Purifying Plants

Setting a specific tone in a bedroom can happen in many ways. A beautiful candle, plush rugs, soft bedding, soothing...

Advertisement

Sport

Sports2 months ago

5 Tips for Setting Up Your PC for Online Gaming

Due to advances in technology, online gamers can enjoy a gaming experience that was unthinkable even a decade ago. High-resolution...

Sports2 months ago

How to Succeed in Poker Tournaments

Perhaps your first big poker tournament is coming up, or you’ve been gathering skills ready to enter – no matter...

Sports2 months ago

Is The Olympics Still Relevant?

As the Tokyo Olympics has come to a close, competitors must move on from the excitement of experiencing an Olympic...

Fernández reflects on the game against Dart: ‘Honestly, I can’t think of anything positive’ Fernández reflects on the game against Dart: ‘Honestly, I can’t think of anything positive’
Sports3 months ago

Fernández reflects on the game against Dart: ‘Honestly, I can’t think of anything positive’

var adServerUrl = “”; var $ el = $ (“# video_container-985707”); var permalink = $ el.closest (‘. snet-single-article’). data (‘permalink’);...

Tammy Abraham to Roma – Mourinho is the perfect coach for the striker Tammy Abraham to Roma – Mourinho is the perfect coach for the striker
Sports3 months ago

Tammy Abraham to Roma – Mourinho is the perfect coach for the striker

It seems that not too long ago, a young English Target Man was a troubling prospect for most Premier League...

Explanation: Why Barcelona had to let Messi go Explanation: Why Barcelona had to let Messi go
Sports3 months ago

Explanation: Why Barcelona had to let Messi go

Barcelona’s Argentine forward Lionel Messi cries during a press conference at Barcelona’s Camp Nou stadium on August 8, 2021. –...

Are Arsenal and Spurs left out of the top 6 in dispute as the 2021/22 season approaches? Are Arsenal and Spurs left out of the top 6 in dispute as the 2021/22 season approaches?
Sports3 months ago

Are Arsenal and Spurs left out of the top 6 in dispute as the 2021/22 season approaches?

Manchester United, Manchester City, Liverpool, Chelsea, Spurs and Arsenal are the teams that are widely regarded as the top 6...

What should team Canada’s men’s hockey roster look like? What should team Canada’s men’s hockey roster look like?
Sports3 months ago

What should team Canada’s men’s hockey roster look like?

We have sent an email with instructions to create a new password. Your current password has not been changed. We...

Haaland, but staying in Dotmund, can BVB get the title on 21/22? Haaland, but staying in Dotmund, can BVB get the title on 21/22?
Sports3 months ago

Haaland, but staying in Dotmund, can BVB get the title on 21/22?

There are almost twenty days left in the transfer window. The window is in full swing as deals that would...

Knicks agree to deal with Dwayne Bacon: reports Knicks agree to deal with Dwayne Bacon: reports
Sports3 months ago

Knicks agree to deal with Dwayne Bacon: reports

Dwayne Bacon # 8 of the Orlando Magic shoots as John Collins # 20 of the Atlanta Hawks defends during...

Advertisement

Entertainment

Venice adds Doc ‘Ennio’;  Netflix Confirms Sanjay Leela Bhansali Series – News Block Venice adds Doc ‘Ennio’;  Netflix Confirms Sanjay Leela Bhansali Series – News Block
Entertainment3 months ago

Venice adds Doc ‘Ennio’; Netflix Confirms Sanjay Leela Bhansali Series – News Block

Venice adds Giuseppe Tornatore’s Ennio Morricone film The Venice Film Festival incorporates the Out of Competition screening of Ennio Morricone’s...

The Jeffrey Epstein Victims Fund has finished paying $ 121 million The Jeffrey Epstein Victims Fund has finished paying $ 121 million
Entertainment3 months ago

The Jeffrey Epstein Victims Fund has finished paying $ 121 million

After awarding more than $ 121 million to about 150 applicants, a compensation program for survivors of Jeffrey Epstein’s sexual...

Matt Roloff and Karyn Chandler move in together, discuss marriage Matt Roloff and Karyn Chandler move in together, discuss marriage
Entertainment3 months ago

Matt Roloff and Karyn Chandler move in together, discuss marriage

Small people, big world star Matt Roloff and his girlfriend, Karyn Chandlerhave revealed their big summer plans in a new...

Mike Shouhed wants Reza Farahan to apologize for being a ‘traitor’ Mike Shouhed wants Reza Farahan to apologize for being a ‘traitor’
Entertainment3 months ago

Mike Shouhed wants Reza Farahan to apologize for being a ‘traitor’

Shouhed says his Shahs of Sunset co-star “cuts deep and says things that are hard to forgive.” While a sexting...

Joey Lawrence and Samantha Cope are engaged Joey Lawrence and Samantha Cope are engaged
Entertainment3 months ago

Joey Lawrence and Samantha Cope are engaged

He put a ring on it! Joey lawrence is engaged to the actress Samantha cope one year after filing for...

Christine Applegate was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis Christine Applegate was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis
Entertainment3 months ago

Christine Applegate was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis

August 10, 2021 Christine Applegate was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). Christina Applegate The 49-year-old actress took to Twitter on...

UK advertisers form tapestry with clients Coel, Fassbender, Foy – News Block UK advertisers form tapestry with clients Coel, Fassbender, Foy – News Block
Entertainment3 months ago

UK advertisers form tapestry with clients Coel, Fassbender, Foy – News Block

EXCLUSIVE: UK advertisers Donna Mills and Emma Jackson, longtime representatives of London-based Premier Communications, have launched the new advertising agency...

Christina Applegate: actress reveals multiple sclerosis diagnosis Christina Applegate: actress reveals multiple sclerosis diagnosis
Entertainment3 months ago

Christina Applegate: actress reveals multiple sclerosis diagnosis

prime time Emmy-winning actor Christina applegate has revealed a multiple sclerosis condition through a Twitter post late on Monday night....

Prince Harry and Meghan Markle wanted to move to New Zealand in 2018 Prince Harry and Meghan Markle wanted to move to New Zealand in 2018
Entertainment3 months ago

Prince Harry and Meghan Markle wanted to move to New Zealand in 2018

Prince harry and Meghan Markle according to Queen Elizabeth IIRepresentative to New Zealand, Governor General Patsy Reddy… She said Associated...

Alarming new UN climate report says humanity has really screwed itself up Alarming new UN climate report says humanity has really screwed itself up
Entertainment3 months ago

Alarming new UN climate report says humanity has really screwed itself up

The last evaluation of climate science is a “code red for humanity,” the United Nations chief said on Monday, while...

Advertisement

Tech

Tech7 days ago

How to Provide Cybersecurity for Firefox

Mozilla Firefox is one of the first browsers that come to mind when thinking about the best privacy-oriented browsers available...

Tech4 weeks ago

6 Important Questions to Ask Your Internet Provider

Choosing the best internet provider can be challenging, especially when you don’t know what questions to ask. You want to...

Tech1 month ago

How Serious is Plagiarism in College?

Studying in college often demands writing essays and course papers. You may study technical subjects and do not have many...

Tech1 month ago

Three Possible Ways of How You Can Transfer Contacts from Outlook to iPhone

MS Outlook plays an important role in putting daily life in order, especially with regard to email management. If you...

Tech1 month ago

Importance of Email Validation

According to recent stats, 30% of users change their email every year. Therefore, if your mailing list is more than...

Tech1 month ago

Before Doing Virtual Staging, Here’s What You Should Know

The majority of people today go online to look for homes. When a potential buyer spots a house online that...

Tech1 month ago

What Technologies are Online Casinos Using?

Online casinos have become an ideal choice for a lot of players, especially because they let players take their games...

Tech2 months ago

Grow Your Brand With These 5 Social Media Tips

Whether you’re operating a new business or working to grow your brand, social media is an excellent place to start....

Tech2 months ago

Is Mining Ethereum Still Profitable in 2021?

Globally, there have been lots of innovations and modernization in different aspects of life. This fact has contributed to the...

Tech2 months ago

Popularity Of the Blockchain Technology: How Familiar Are You with It?

Cryptocurrencies are a form of digital currency that stands out because it is decentralized. Cryptocurrency also stands out because it...

Advertisement
Advertisement