Learn all about your ear: its anatomy, physiology and diseases – News Block

In my last article, I described everything about nose and throat infections. In this article we will learn all about the third component of the upper respiratory tract that is connected to the nose and throat: the ear.

Anatomy of the ear and functions of the different parts.

The ear is the organ of hearing and balance. It consists of three parts:

  1. the outer ear,
  2. middle ear and
  3. inner ear.

It is very important to learn about these parts because today we are going to learn about diseases that affect these parts.

the outer ear includes the pinna (the visible part of the ear) and the ear canal.

the middle ear it is separated from the outer ear by the eardrum and contains three small bones that amplify sound waves.

the inner ear it contains the cochlea, which is responsible for hearing, and the vestibular system, which helps with balance.

Connecting the middle ear to the throat is a tube called the Eustachian tube. This tube is important because infection from the throat and nose can be transmitted to the middle ear causing an infection called Otitis Media.

Depending on the site, there are three main types of ear infections:

  • outer ear infections (otitis externa),
  • middle ear infections (otitis media), and
  • inner ear infections (otitis interna).

Let us learn about these ear infections one by one.

external otitis:

This is an infection of the external ear canal that can cause pain and swelling.

Symptoms include:

  • itching,
  • pain,
  • redness of the earlobe (pinna), and
  • discharge of pus with excoriation of the skin around the external auditory canal.

otitis media:

This is a middle ear infection that can cause pain and fever. Outer ear infections, also known as swimmer’s ear (otitis externa), occur when bacteria or fungi enter the ear canal through exposure to water or breaks in the skin.

middle ear infection-otitis media
Middle Ear Infection-Otitis Media- as seen through an otoscope Image Source- MedUthEdu

Middle ear infections (otitis media) are more common in children than adults and occur when fluid becomes trapped in the middle ear behind the eardrum.

Symptoms include

  • pain, fever,
  • temporary hearing loss, and
  • a feeling of pressure or fullness in the ear.
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Another image showing advanced otitis media with a bulging eardrum with purulent material (Pus). Image Source: MedUthEdu

Here again, middle ear infections are of two types: Acute Otitis Media (AOM) and Chronic Otitis Media (COM).

Acute otitis media (AOM)

Acute otitis media (AOM) is caused by bacteria or viruses and affects the middle ear. Symptoms and signs include-

  • earache,
  • fever,
  • trouble hearing and
  • possibly drainage of pus from the ear

Chronic Otitis Media

Chronic otitis media with effusion is a prolonged buildup of fluid in the middle ear or occurs when fluid becomes trapped in the middle ear behind the eardrum. One possible cause of this condition is untreated or poorly managed AOM. Symptoms include:

  • pain,
  • fever,
  • hearing loss, and
  • a feeling of fullness in the affected year due to fluid/pus buildup in the middle ear.

Helpful resource- ear infections

Internal Otitis

Inner ear infections (otitis interna) are the least common type, are rare, and are usually caused by a virus. Symptoms include

  • vertigo (dizziness), sometimes hearing loss, and is called Meniere’s disease
  • ringing or buzzing in the ear. Is called tinnitus.

What are the important ways or investigations to diagnose ear infections?

Your treating physician or ear, nose, and throat surgeon may recommend having these tests or investigations.

  • otoscopy: A physical examination of the ear canal and eardrum using a medical device called an otoscope. Help your healthcare provider check for any visible signs of infection, such as redness, swelling, or discharge. Learn all about this test here- otoscopy
  • Culture and susceptibility (C&S) test: A laboratory test performed on a sample of discharge or fluid from the ear to identify the specific type of bacteria causing the infection and determine the most effective antibiotic for treatment. Learn all about this test here- Culture and sensitivity test.
  • Blood test: These tests help assess a patient’s general health and detect possible complications or underlying conditions, such as a weakened immune system.
  • imaging tests: These tests, as a CT scan or MRIIt may be necessary if the ear infection is severe or chronic to determine the extent of the damage and to rule out any other possible conditions.
  • tympanometry: A test that measures the movement of the eardrum in response to changes in ear pressure. This test helps diagnose middle ear infections and determine the severity of the condition. Find out about this test here- tympanometry
  • Audiometry: Hearing test that evaluates the patient’s hearing ability, which can be affected in some cases of ear infections. Learn all about this test here– Audiometry.

For example:

Suppose a 10-year-old boy has been complaining of earache and fever for two days. Following the exam, the health care provider performs an otoscopy and identifies redness and swelling in the ear canal.

To confirm the diagnosis and determine the appropriate treatment, the provider orders a C&S test, blood work, and tympanometry. If necessary, the provider can also perform an imaging test to rule out any serious complications.

Ear infections General signs and symptoms

As you already know, ear infections are common conditions that affect the middle ear, the part of the ear behind the eardrum that contains the tiny vibrating bones.

They can be caused by bacteria or viruses, and are often the result of another illness, such as a cold, flu, or allergy, causing congestion and inflammation of the nasal passages, throat, and Eustachian tubes².

The Eustachian tubes are small tubes that run from each ear to the back of the throat. They help regulate air pressure, cool the air, and drain normal secretions from the middle ear. When the Eustachian tubes become blocked, fluid can collect in the middle ear and become infected.

Ear infections can cause symptoms such as:

  • Ear pain or discomfort
  • Trouble hearing or responding to sounds
  • Fever
  • Drainage of fluid or pus from the ear
  • Headache
  • loss of balance
  • Nausea or vomiting

These symptoms can vary depending on the age of the person and the type of infection. Children are more likely than adults to get ear infections, and may also show signs of irritability, trouble sleeping, loss of appetite, or tugging or tugging at the ears.

These infections can be acute or chronic. Acute infections are painful but short-lived. Chronic infections do not go away or come back many times. They can cause damage to the middle and inner ear, which can lead to hearing loss or other serious complications.

Management of ear infections

Treatment of ear infections depends on several factors, including the cause, severity, and duration of the infection, as well as the person’s age and health. Some of these infections may go away on their own without any treatment, while others may require antibiotics or other medications to fight the infection and reduce inflammation and pain.

Personal care and home remedies

Some home remedies that can help alleviate the symptoms of ear infections include:

  • Apply a warm compress or heating pad to the affected ear
  • Taking over-the-counter pain relievers, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen
  • Using ear drops containing olive oil, garlic, or hydrogen peroxide (only if the eardrum is not perforated)
  • Elevating your head while sleeping to help drain fluid from your ear
  • Drink plenty of fluids to stay hydrated and thin mucus.

However, these remedies are not a substitute for medical advice and should not be used without first consulting a doctor. If you have signs of an ear infection, especially if they are severe or persistent, you should see a doctor as soon as possible for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Helpful resource: Natural remedies for ear infection

Ear Infection Prevention

Some ways to prevent ear infections include:

  • Avoid exposure to tobacco smoke and other irritants that can affect the respiratory system
  • Wash your hands frequently and avoid contact with sick people.
  • Breastfeed for at least six months if possible
  • Staying up to date with vaccinations can protect against common causes of ear infections.
  • Avoid inserting anything into the ears, such as cotton swabs, fingers, or foreign objects.
  • Treat any allergies or sinus problems that may be affecting your ears

Medical line for the treatment of ear infections

WarningThe information provided below is only intended to improve your knowledge of treating ear infections and should not be considered as a prescription for treatment. Your healthcare provider/physician is the best person to help you get better.

  • Antibiotics are often prescribed for bacterial ear infections, such as acute otitis media (AOM).
    Example: Amoxicillin, Augmentin, Cefdinir, Cefuroxime, Cefpodoxime, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, etc.
  • Over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil) can help relieve ear pain and inflammation.
    Example: Tylenol, Advil, Aleve, etc.
  • Decongestants can help relieve congestion and pressure in the ear.
    Example: Sudafed, Afrin, Phenylephrine, etc.
  • Antihistamines can help relieve allergy-related ear infections.
    Example: Claritin, Zyrtec, Allegra, etc.
  • Steroids like prednisone or methylprednisolone can help reduce inflammation.
    Example: Prednisone, Methylprednisolone, etc.
  • Surgery may be necessary for severe or chronic ear infections that do not respond to other treatments.
    Example: Myringotomy, Tympanoplasty, Mastoidectomy, etc
  • Tubes may be inserted into the ears to drain fluid and allow equalization of pressure in the ear.
    Example: tympanostomy tubes, ventilation pipes, etc

It is important to note that not all ear infections require medication or surgery. Some ear infections may resolve on their own over time. Consultation with a healthcare professional is recommended for proper diagnosis and treatment options.

Useful article: all about the ear


I hope this information has been useful and informative. If you have any further questions about ear infections or anything else, feel free to ask me. 😊

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My next article will be about some conditions that I have already mentioned in this article:Tinnitus and Meniere’s disease.

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